Conjunctions - Use of Conjunctions and Their Kinds Free English Grammar Notes

Saif Ullah Zahid


Conjunctions are joining words. They join two or more words, group of words, or sentences.
Example: Two and two make four.
Her work is slow but neat.

Kinds of Conjunctions

There are three kinds of conjunctions that join two sentences.

1. Coordinating conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions are used to join grammatical units of the same type.
These are ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘or’, ‘nor’, ‘neither’, ‘for’, ‘yet’, ‘still’, ‘so’, etc.
Examples: She is sick yet she is cheerful.
This is neither my pen nor yours.

2. Correlative conjunctions

This include ‘both…and’, ‘not only…but also’, ‘either…or’, ‘neither…nor’, etc.
Examples: not onlyis she smart but also clever.

When conjunctions are used as correlatives, each of the correlated words should be placed immediately before the words to be connected.
Examples: He met not only the prime minister, but also the president.

3. Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating Conjunctions are those that introduce subordinate clauses and join them to main clauses.
They are divided into different classes as given below.

1. Manner

These conjunctions introduce adverb clauses of manner with ‘as if’, ‘as though’, and ‘according to’.
Example: She looked as if she had been working for hours.

2. Place

These conjunctions use adverb clauses of place with ‘whence’, ‘where’, and ‘wherever’.
Example: She is praised wherever she goes.

3. Time

The conjunctions introduce adverb clauses of time like ‘when’, ‘after’, ‘since’, ‘till’, ‘until’, ‘while’, as soon as’, ‘before as’, and ‘up to’.
Example: it has been a long time since I last saw you.

4. Reason

‘as’, because’, and ‘since’ introduce adverb clauses of reason.
Examples: He was so upset with his brother that he could barely look at him.

5. Purpose

The adverb clause of purpose is introduced with these conjunctions ‘that’, ‘in order to’, and ‘lest’.
Examples: We study that we may gain knowledge.

6. Condition

Introduces adverb clauses of condition with ‘if’, ‘provided’, and ‘unless’.
Example: You cannot go home unless you complete your work.

7. Concession or Contrast

Adverb clauses of concession or contrast are introduced with ‘although’, ‘even if’, and ‘however’.
Example: Although she betrayed me, I still have no hard feelings for her.

8. Comparison

The adverb clauses of comparison is introduced with the form ‘as…as’, as much as’, and, ‘no less than’.
Example: She is as tall as her sister.

Exercise No.1

A join each pair of the following sentences using a suitable conjunction.
1. This mango is ripe. It is not sweet.
2. He was tired. He continued to work.
3. You are tall. Your brother is taller.
4. You must start at once. You will be late.
5. I may go to Multan this holiday. I may go to murree.
6. Her work is slow. Her work is neat.
7. My mother is fine. Father is ill.
8. He was afraid of being late. He ran.

Fill in the blanks with appropriate conjunctions.
Will you kindly wait__________ I return?
They left_______ we returned.
_______ somewhat annoying, he was quite an interesting character.
Never start an argument, ______ you may think you are right.
I know more about this _______ you give me credit for.
Do _______ you are told.
You will not succeed _____ you work hard.

I don’t know ______ he has gone and he will return.

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